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Segments of records from the Colindale Newspaper Library | PARTIAL LISTING OF LEVANTINE PUBLISHED NEWSPAPERS OF TURKEY (weekly pub. unless stated) - arranged in language and rough chronological order

Title Definite pub. date range - frequency Editor - nature City of pub.
French language newspapers
La Smyrneena - cont. as 1824, the first in the city Charles Tricon (1824), M. Roux (1824) Smyrna
La Spectateur Oriental - cont. as 24 March 1821 to end 1837, once a week Charles Tricon (1824), Alexandre Blacque (1824) - phillo-Turkish newspaper, Feuille litteraire, critique et commerciale. Smyrna
Le Courrier de Smyrne 1824 - 1905 - twice weekly Alexandre Blacque (1824), Reggio Gaston (1893), later Jules Regio (1905) - online example of an issue from 1887 Smyrna
Journal de Smyrna ? Anthony Edwards (1830s) ?, F. Murat (1905) Smyrna
Journal de Constantinople 1839-1845+? ? Const.
La Turquie 1867-1875 ? Const.
La Réforme 1868-1918 - twice a week (1893), 6 days a week (1905) E. Oscan (1893), Nikolai Çürükçüoğlu (1905), Frank Street, Allioti Han Smyrna
Stamboul ? -1918-1918 (earlier suspended by government order 3 times) ? Const.
Le Matin (launched upon the suspension of ‘Stamboul’ 1879-1879+? owner Alfred Edwards1 Const.
Petit Sou1 ? owner Alfred Edwards1 Const.
Le Progrès d’Orient 1874-1874 ? Const.
Le Courrier de Turquie 1882-1882 ? Const.
Le Temps de Constantinople 1882-1882 ? Const.
Affiches Smyrneennes 1893 Fr. Datodi - view advert in Indicateur Commercial 1898-1899 Smyrna
Bulletin de Smyrne 1893 - 1905 - four times, later twice weekly Simon Roux Smyrna
Imperial 1893 - twice weekly A. Viramps Smyrna
Le Journal de la Chambre de Commerce de Constaninople 1894-1912 ? Const.
Agence Nationale Service Télégraphique 1896-1896 ? Const.
Hilal 1917-1918 ? Const.
Lloyd Ottoman 1917-1918 ? Const.
Le Moniteur Oriental 1917-1919 ? Const.
L’Entente 1919-1919 ? Const.
La Liberté 1918-1919+? manager L. Ksanthakis - view sample issues: Const.
Independant 1919-? John Çürükçüoğlu, Frank Street, Allioti Han Const.
Le Levant 1919 - 1937 owner Sırrı Bey, chief author Michel Camberes, Frank Street no 136 - view sample issues: Izmir
Lloyd Ottoman 1917-1918 ? Const.
Le Moniteur Oriental 1917-1919 ? Const.
Le Soir 1917-1918 ? Const.
Le Journal d’Orient 1917-1971 ? - view examples - a cosmopolitan paper with some cultural Levantine flavour. Founded in 1917 by Albert Karasu (Jewish?), principal columnists Angele Loreley wife of Jourdor Karasu and Willy Sperco. Istanbul
La République 1946-1951 ? Izmir
English language newspapers
Impartial 1840 - 1905 ? Anthony Edwards (1840), Simon Rue (1905) - French - view example Smyrna
The Smyrna Mail 1862-1864 ? Smryna
The Levant Times and Shipping Gazette - cont. as 1868-1874 ? Const.
The Levant Herald - cont. as 1873-1882 editor Lewis Mizzi1 Const.
The Eastern Express - cont. as 1882-1886 ? - view example Const.
The Levant Herald and Eastern Express 1856-1914 ? Const.
The Constantinople Messanger - cont. as - daily 1871-1877 ? - view example Const.
The Harpoot News 1873-1878 ? Harput
The Orient News 1919-1922 information Const.

The Orient


Published by the American Bible House - examples


Italian language newspapers
Bollettino Mensile ? ? - non-political magazine Const.
Eco d’Italia 1885 Michelle Pellegrino Smyrna
Il Messaggero Degli Italiani 1927 ? - non-political Istanbul
La Rassegna Italiana 1931, monthly ? - political magazine Istanbul
Vita Cattolica ?, weekly ? - magazine Const.
German language newspapers
Die Verteididung 1915-1918 ? Const.
Osmanischer Lloyd 1917-1918 shipping gazette ? Const.

The definition of a Levantine paper is not precise as not all editors were Levantines, and the readership wasn’t necessarily exclusively of this community, but were produced in Western European languages. This list is ongoing, and excludes certain catagories, such as papers produced for the benefit of Allied troops in occupation in Izmir, Black Sea region etc. as well as papers edited by Levantines but produced in the Turkish language such as the Ceredi-e Havadis. The listing also excludes publications by the various churches such as ‘La Voce’ (Catholic in Izmir), ‘Candlesticks’ (former Anglican in Izmir - segments), ‘Le Pelerin’ (former Catholic in Istanbul) etc.

There were pre 1922 Greek language papers such as Amalthia published in Smyrna read by a considerable body of Greek Catholics considered Levantines, that could be added to this list for that reason. The fuller listing: Amalthia est. 1838, Esti est. 1910, Tharros est. 1913, Kopanos est. 1908, Kosmos est. 1909, Patris est. 1919, Smirnios est. 1909, Tilegrafos est. 1911, Nea Smyrni (1869 - 1912). The Armenian publications of the city: Arevelian Mamul est. 1879, Orizon, Evdomadiea, Mimos, Zaveot, Adrusan. Jewish: O Nuvelist, Messeret, Pregonero, Salom, Boz de Izmir. Turkish: Ahenk, Islahat, Medeniyet, Musavat, Sağdıç, Köylü, Şark.

Information sources include the Colindale Newspaper library of London, Fabio Tito, Melisa Urgandokur and Alex Baltazzi.
1- Another source of information is ‘Quand Beyoglu s’appelait Pera [when Beyoğlu was called Pera] - Said N. Duhani, edited at the magazine La Turquie Moderne 1956’.
2- Another information source is the book ‘Vie Latine de l’Empire Ottoman - Lusignan, Livio Missir De - Isis 2004’, giving information on prominent writers and editors of the various publications.

image courtesy of Alex Baltazzi

3- Censorship was a persistent issue with all newspapers printed in the Ottoman Empire, and name changes frequently were the means by which a banned paper could be resurrected. Mark Twain in his book ‘Innocents Abroad’ has certain information on this vein:

The newspaper business has its inconveniences in Constantinople. Two Greek papers and one French one were suppressed here within a few days of each other. No victories of the Cretans are allowed to be printed. From time to time the Grand Vizier sends a notice to the various editors that the Cretan insurrection is entirely suppressed, and although that editor knows better, he still has to print the notice. The Levant Herald is too fond of speaking praisefully of Americans to be popular with the Sultan, who does not relish our sympathy with the Cretans, and therefore that paper has to be particularly circumspect in order to keep out of trouble. Once the editor, forgetting the official notice in his paper that the Cretans were crushed out, printed a letter of a very different tenor, from the American Consul in Crete, and was fined two hundred and fifty dollars for it. Shortly he printed another from the same source and was imprisoned three months for his pains. I think I could get the assistant editorship of the Levant Herald, but I am going to try to worry along without it.

To suppress a paper here involves the ruin of the publisher, almost. But in Naples I think they speculate on misfortunes of that kind. Papers are suppressed there every day, and spring up the next day under a new name. During the ten days or a fortnight we stayed there one paper was murdered and resurrected twice. The newsboys are smart there, just as they are elsewhere. They take advantage of popular weaknesses. When they find they are not likely to sell out, they approach a citizen mysteriously, and say in a low voice — “Last copy, sir: double price; paper just been suppressed!” The man buys it, of course, and finds nothing in it. They do say — I do not vouch for it — but they do say that men sometimes print a vast edition of a paper, with a ferociously seditious article in it, distribute it quickly among the newsboys, and clear out till the Government’s indignation cools. It pays well. Confiscation don’t amount to any thing. The type and presses are not worth taking care of.

image courtesy of Andrew Simes

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